By Gerald O. Barney
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Additional info for The Global 2000 Report to the President: Entering the Twenty-First Century
T. M. (2011). Carotenoid photoprotection in artiﬁcial photosynthetic antennas. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 133, 7007e7015. , Gould, S. , de la Garza, L. … Kennis, J. T. M. (2004). Light harvesting and photoprotective functions of carotenoids in compact artiﬁcial photosynthetic antenna designs. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 108, 414e425. , Ye, H. , MacDonnell, F. , & Rajeshwar, K. (2002). Ruthenium photocatalysts capable of reversibly storing up to four electrons in a single acceptor ligand: a step closer to artiﬁcial photosynthesis.
The nanoparticles are coated onto a conductive, transparent glass substrate and sensitized with a ruthenium tris-bipyridyletype metal complex. This complex in turn is linked to nanoparticulate iridium oxide, which functions as a water oxidation catalyst. The second electrode, which is linked to the photoanode via a wire, is metallic platinum. Excitation of the ruthenium complex with light is Figure 16 Complete photoelectrochemical cell for solar splitting of water to hydrogen and oxygen. An Illustrative History of Artiﬁcial Photosynthesis 35 followed by electron injection into the nanoparticulate TiO2 electrode, from which electrons move into the wire and migrate to the Pt cathode, where they reduce hydrogen ions to hydrogen gas.
Moore, T. , Moore, A. , & Gust, D. (2008). Self-regulation of photoinduced electron transfer by a molecular nonlinear transducer. Nature Nanotechnology, 3, 280e283. Sullivan, B. , Finklea, H. , Salmon, D. , Nagle, J. , Meyer, T. , & Sprintschnik, H. (1978). Multiple emissions from charge-transfer excited-states of ruthenium(II)-polypyridine complexes. Chemical Physics Letters, 58, 389e393. Swierk, J. , Mendez-Hernandez, D. , McCool, N. , Liddell, P. , Pahk, I. … Mallouk, T. E. (2015). Metal-free organic sensitizers for use in water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells.