By Lemuel Ibbotson
'The basics of sign Transmission' provides a dialogue of the most varieties of sign transmission media. Twisted pair, coaxial line, optical fibre, waveguides and freespace propagation and antennas are lined utilizing a customary structure. After a dialogue of indications as a rule, the character of wave propagation is tested. those basics are then concerning the categorical transmission kinds. arithmetic is saved so simple as attainable and is complemented through plentiful qualitative clarification; the place worthy extra specified arithmetic are available within the appendices. a few wisdom of easy digital circuit concept and box thought is believed. Written in an off-the-cuff and obtainable type, 'The basics of sign Transmission' presents all undergraduate electronics engineers with a concise evaluation of electromagnetic sign transmission. written in an iformal and available styleprovides a concise assessment of electromagnetic sign transmissioncovers the entire major varieties of sign transmission in a single quantity
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Extra resources for The Fundamentals of Signal Transmission, Optical Fibre, Waveguides and Free Space
4 would be as shown in Fig. 5 (ignoring what happens at the edges of the sheet). The wave shown in Fig. 5 is a plane wave, but the electric field is restricted in length to the distance between the sheets and terminates on charges in the sheets. The magnetic field only exists between the sheets, and in each sheet there are currents consistent with the magnetic field. See Fig. 6. Fig. 4 Reflection and refraction of plane waves 41 Current value (into page) = n amperes over each metre width -'~ , i .
These are similar to the properties of a parallel tuned circuit. It is difficult to make components which behave as reasonably pure inductors Or capacitors at higher frequencies - say above 500 MHz - so resonant line sections are often used in this way (see Chapter 7). Another common example is a quarter-wave section of line, of intermediate characteristic impedance, introduced between the main line and a resistive load to effect matching (but only at the appropriate frequency). The required characteristic impedance of the matching section proves to be Z m -- 4 Z o Z L (see Chapter 7).
Reflections can also be caused by discontinuities in the line - particularly at joints. These need to be minimized. If high powers are in use - as in the case of a feeder from a transmitter to an antenna - voltage maxima caused by reflection can lead to electrical breakdown. Finally, reflected power arriving back at the input may affect the generator, causing both its frequency and power output to vary in an unpredictable manner. Fault location using pulses Pulses can be used to find the position of a fault on a line, and some clue as to the nature of the fault.