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By Panayot Butchvarov

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Eo M. odl, 1953), t �6 and pp. 221-22. Primary Knowledge less; for "I am in pain" s i a statement, it is true or false, and not at all a locution that cannot meaningfully complete the form "I know that. . :' In what other way could "I do not know that I am in pain" be senselds? Clearly, only in that it cannot possibly be true, in that it is a logical false­ hood. And from this, of course, it would not £ollow at all that its con� tradictory is senseless. "Two and two are not four" is logically false, but "Two and two are four" is perfectly intelligible and indttd necessarily true.

That most of our knowl· edge is derivative should be obvious. This does not mean that in every case we acquire such knowledge by actual derivation; perhaps only seldom do we go through a process of inference. What is meant is that the legitimacy of most of our episte:mic judgments depends on the support they receive from other l':piste:mic judgml':nts. That there are primary epistemic judgtnl':nts, and thus that thl':rC: is primary knowledge, seems m me C:qually obvious (I will give examples presently), though much of th� rest of this book wilt consist in the analysis of thl': notion and the demonstration of the existencl': of such judgments.

I I say to someone thal l know that tht: bank will not foreclose his mortgagt:. By saying thi5 I make a commitment to the tTUth of the propmition I say I know. But thue is nothing distinctive or philosophically important about this context. At most it is, so to speak, of sociological interest. " And insofar as what J do has an epinemic character, as of course it docs, its epistemic character is left quite unilluminated by iu "performati\·e" character, for I am not giving my word or guaranteeing that I will do something (I am not saying that I will not foreclose the mortgage), but that a certain proposition is true.

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