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Download The Art of R Programming: A Tour of Statistical Software by Norman Matloff PDF

By Norman Matloff

R is the world's preferred language for constructing statistical software program: Archaeologists use it to trace the unfold of old civilizations, drug businesses use it to find which medicinal drugs are secure and potent, and actuaries use it to evaluate monetary dangers and retain economies operating smoothly.

"The paintings of R Programming" takes you on a guided travel of software program improvement with R, from uncomplicated forms and knowledge buildings to complicated subject matters like closures, recursion, and nameless capabilities. No statistical wisdom is needed, and your programming abilities can variety from hobbyist to pro.

Along the best way, you'll find out about useful and object-oriented programming, working mathematical simulations, and rearranging advanced information into easier, extra worthy codecs. You'll additionally examine to:
* Create crafty graphs to imagine complicated facts units and functions
* Write extra effective code utilizing parallel R and vectorization
* Interface R with C/C++ and Python for elevated velocity or functionality
* locate new programs for textual content research, snapshot manipulation, and millions more
* Squash tense insects with complex debugging techniques

Whether you're designing airplane, forecasting the elements, otherwise you simply have to tame your info, The artwork of R Programming is your advisor to harnessing the facility of statistical computing.

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Extra info for The Art of R Programming: A Tour of Statistical Software Design

Example text

In other words, we are fitting a straight line to the (exam 1, exam 2) pairs in our data. This is done through a classic least-squares method. ) Note that the exam 1 scores, which are stored in the first column of our data frame, are collectively referred to as examsquiz[,1]. Omission of the first subscript (the row number) means that we are referring to an entire column of the frame. The exam 2 scores are similarly referenced. So, our call to lm() above predicts the second column of examsquiz from the first.

3 Introduction to Functions As in most programming languages, the heart of R programming consists of writing functions. A function is a group of instructions that takes inputs, uses them to compute other values, and returns a result. As a simple introduction, let’s define a function named oddcount(), whose purpose is to count the odd numbers in a vector of integers. Normally, we would compose the function code using a text editor and save it in a file, but in this quick-and-dirty example, we’ll enter it line by line in R’s interactive mode.

This is typical R. The same is true for this expression, on line 9: mean(abs(pred-x[(k+1):n])) Here, pred contains the predicted values, while x[(k+1):n] has the actual values for the days in question. Subtracting the second from the first gives us values of either 0, 1, or −1. Here, 1 or −1 correspond to prediction errors in one direction or the other, predicting 0 when the true value was 1 or vice versa. Taking absolute values with abs(), we have 0s and 1s, the latter corresponding to errors. So we now know where days gave us errors.

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