By Catherine M. Otto MD
Textbook of scientific Echocardiography, fifth variation lets you use echocardiography to its fullest power on your preliminary prognosis, choice making, and medical administration of sufferers with a variety of middle illnesses. World-renowned heart specialist Dr. Catherine M. Otto is helping you grasp what you want to understand to acquire the certain anatomic and physiologic details that may be won from the total variety of echo suggestions, from uncomplicated to complicated.
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Additional info for Textbook of Clinical Echocardiography
2D echocardiographic view of the LV from an apical approach. The effect of beam width can be appreciated by comparing the length of reflections from point targets near and at greater distances from the transducer as shown by the arrows. the ultrasound beam can be appreciated (Fig. 1-10). Erroneous interpretations occur when the effects of beam width are not recognized. For example, beam width artifact from a strong specular reflector may appear to be an abnormal linear structure. Other factors that affect lateral resolution are transducer frequency, aperture, bandwidth, and side and grating lobe levels.
Two-Dimensional Echocardiography Image Production A 2D echocardiographic image is generated from the data obtained by electronically “sweeping” the ultrasound beam across the tomographic plane. For each scan line, short pulses (or bursts of ultrasound) are emitted at a PRF determined by the time needed for ultrasound to travel to and from the maximum image depth. The pulse repetition period is the total time 11 Chapter 1 | Principles of Echocardiographic Image Acquisition and Doppler Analysis 3D/2D M-mode Distance Time Ao A-mode Ao LA Ao Depth 12 LA Distance Time Figure 1–11 3D, 2D, M-mode, and A-mode recordings of aortic valve motion.
Graph of the maximum possible color Doppler frame rate (vertical axis) versus depth (horizontal axis) for 8 or 4 bursts per scan line and 30 or 45 scan lines per frame. Note that at a depth of 16 cm, a frame rate 20 or greater can be achieved only by decreasing the burst length to 4 or narrowing the sector to 30 scan lines. 80 Possible frame rate (Hz) 26 8 bursts, 45 scan lines 8 bursts, 30 scan lines 4 bursts, 45 scan lines 4 bursts, 30 scan lines 60 40 20 0 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Depth (cm) TABLE 1-9 Color Doppler Artifacts Artifact Appearance Shadowing Absence of flow signal distal to strong reflector Ghosting Brief flashes of color that overlay anatomic structures and do not correlate with flow patterns Background noise Speckled color pattern over 2D sector due to excessive gain Underestimation of flow signal Loss of true flow signals due to inadequate gain Intercept angle Change in color (or absence at 90°) due to the angle between the flowstream and ultrasound beam across the image plane Aliasing “Wraparound” of color display results in a “variance” display even for laminar flow.