Signal Processing

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By Paul Taylor

Text-to-Speech Synthesis offers an entire, end-to-end account of the method of producing speech by means of desktop. Giving an in-depth clarification of all features of present speech synthesis know-how, it assumes no really expert previous wisdom. Introductory chapters on linguistics, phonetics, sign processing and speech indications lay the basis, with next fabric explaining how this data is positioned to exploit in construction functional structures that generate speech. together with assurance of the very most recent options equivalent to unit choice, hidden Markov version synthesis, and statistical textual content research, reasons of the extra conventional recommendations resembling structure synthesis and synthesis by way of rule also are supplied. Weaving jointly a number of the strands of this multidisciplinary box, the ebook is designed for graduate scholars in electric engineering, laptop technology, and linguistics. it's also an amazing reference for practitioners within the fields of human verbal exchange interplay and telephony.

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3 Encoding Encoding is the process of creating a signal from a message. When dealing with speech, we talk of speech encoding and when dealing with writing we talk of writing encoding. Speech encoding by computer is more commonly known as speech synthesis, which is of course the topic of this book. The most significant aspect of speech encoding is that the nature of the two representations, the message and the speech signal, are dramatically different. g. HELLO) may be composed of four phonemes, /h eh l ow/, but the speech signal is a continuously varying acoustic waveform, with no discrete components or even four easily distinguishable parts.

The view that prosody is composed of the functionally separate systems of affective, augmentative and suprasegmental prosody. With regard to this last topic, I should point out that my views on prosody diverge considerably from the mainstream. My view is that mainstream linguistics, and as a consequence much of speech technology has simply got this area of language badly wrong. There is a vast, confusing and usually contradictory literature on prosody, and it has bothered me for years why several contradictory competing theories (of say intonation) exist, why no-one has been able to make use of prosody in speech recognition and understanding systems, and why all prosodic models that I have tested fall far short of the results their creators say we should expect.

HELLO) may be composed of four phonemes, /h eh l ow/, but the speech signal is a continuously varying acoustic waveform, with no discrete components or even four easily distinguishable parts. If one considers the message, we can store each phoneme in about 4-5 bits, so we would need say 2 bytes to store /h eh l ow/. 6 seconds to speak. Where has all this extra content come from, what is it for and how should we view it? Of course, the speech signal is significantly more redundant than the message: by various compression techniques it is possible to reduce its size by a factor of 10 without noticeably affecting it.

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