Environmental Economics

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By Raymond A. Zilinskas

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175Resource Management and Pastoral Institution Building in the West African Sahel. Nadarajah Shanmugaratnam, Trond Vedeld, Anne Mossige, and Mette BovinNo. 176Public and Private Sector Roles in Agricultural Research: Theory and Experience. Dina L. UmaliNo. 177The Regulatory Impediments to the Private Industrial Sector Development in Asia: A Comparative Study. Deena KhatkhateNo. 178China: Reforming Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations. Ramgopal AgarwalaNo. 179Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Privatization Study: Experience of Japan and Lessons for Developing Countries.

Not so with biotechnology. Because the biotechnology industry involves the manipulation of living and therefore dynamic biological systems to achieve products or processes, trained scientists that know these systems are necessary to solve the problems inherent in operating them. The biotechnology industry, therefore, breaks down the usual delineations between basic research, applied research, development and manufacturing; and governments' support for all of these activities is a major factor in its success.

Those strains that retain the capacity to produce the antibiotic and that do not exhibit other unwanted characteristics undergo further steps in the process. If development is successful, chemical engineers propagate large numbers of the selected progeny under controlled circumstances in industrial fermenters, where they produce the desired antibiotic in large quantities via fermentation. The team that undertakes R&D projects in classical biotechnology will typically include microbiologists, biochemists, geneticists and fermentation engineers.

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