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Making the resistors larger, also lowers the frequency range. Naturally, reducing the size of the capacitor and/or reducing the size of the resistor chain, raises the frequency. One 555 chip can be used to gate a second 555 chip via its pin 4 ‘Reset’ option. You will recall that we have already developed a circuit to do this using two astables and a transistor. We also generated the same effect using four NAND gates. Here, we will create the same output waveform using the more conventional circuitry of two 555 chips: Both of the 555 circuits can be bought in a single 14-pin DIL package which is designated ‘556’.

The output voltage from this, at point ‘A’ in the circuit diagram, is normally low as the stripboard is opencircuit when dry. This holds the first NAND gate locked in the OFF state, preventing the first astable from oscillating. This first astable is colour-coded blue in the diagram. Its frequency (the pitch of the note it produces) is governed by the values of the 47K resistor and the 1 microfarad capacitor. Reducing the value of either of these will raise the frequency (note pitch). If rain falls on the sensor, the voltage at point ‘A’ goes high letting the astable run freely.

Well, yes, it is a double inverter, but a double inverter acts as a gate which can pass or block an electronic signal. Consider this circuit: Here, transistors ‘TR1’ and ‘TR2’ are connected to form an astable (multivibrator). The astable runs freely, producing the square wave voltage pattern shown in red. Transistor ‘TR3’ passes this voltage signal on. TR3 inverts the square wave, but this has no practical effect, the output being the same frequency square wave as the signal taken from the collector of TR2.

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