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Download Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds (Essential Chemistry) by Phillip Manning PDF

By Phillip Manning

"Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds" is going behind the curtain of daily chemistry to discover the atoms that govern chemical procedures. In transparent language, this interesting ebook indicates how the interactions among basic ingredients akin to salt and water are the most important to lifestyles in the world and the way these interactions are predestined via the atoms that make up the molecules. moreover, the tales of the scientists whose discoveries formed the trendy global, equivalent to Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein, are offered the following in gripping element. Brimming with full-color images and illustrations and superior by means of sidebars and a thesaurus, "Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds" permits readers to discover the outstanding discoveries highlighted during this e-book.

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Extra resources for Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds (Essential Chemistry)

Example text

Einstein’s photoelectric hypothesis revealed the quantum characteristics of light and exposed its particle-like nature. Special relativity led to the insights that all motion was relative and that the speed of light was an absolute constant, no matter the speed of the light source relative to the point of measurement. A follow-up paper showed the relationship between mass and energy and led to the most famous equation of all: E = mc2 It was, indeed, a miracle year—not just for Einstein, but for science.

He showed that uncertainty was a fact of the atomic world. According to Heisenberg, one could not measure precisely both the position and the momentum of a particle. Although his famous uncertainty principle can be stated in many ways, the most common mathematical expression is ∆p × ∆q ≥ h/4π In this equation, the Greek letter delta, represents the uncertainties associated with the momentum p and the position q of a particle. The letter h is Planck’s constant. The symbol ≥ means greater than or equal to.

If light could be both wave and particle, what about electrons? In fact, de Broglie hypothesized that all matter, from electrons to basketballs, has both wave and particle characteristics. But his equations showed that in larger bodies, bodies big enough to be seen by people, the wave character was negligible. This is why basketballs travel in a straight line toward the basket rather than in waves. Electrons, however, are small enough that wave characteristics play a large role in their behavior.

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