By David Hitchcock, Bart Verheij
Within the makes use of of Argument (1958), Stephen Toulmin proposed a version for the structure of arguments: declare, info, warrant, qualifier, rebuttal, backing. for the reason that then, Toulmin’s version has been appropriated, tailored and prolonged by way of researchers in speech communications, philosophy and synthetic intelligence. This ebook assembles the easiest modern mirrored image in those fields, extending or demanding Toulmin’s rules in ways in which make clean contributions to the speculation of analysing and comparing arguments.
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Extra info for Arguing on the Toulmin Model: New Essays in Argument Analysis and Evaluation (Argumentation Library)
130 s toulmin 9. 123 a whitehead 10. 113 j girard 11. 112 j barwise 12. 112 i lakatos 13. 111 m bunge 14. 107 r carnap 15. 99 c hempel 16. 95 h reichenbach 17. 94 n rescher 18. 88 p gardenfors 19. 87 r stalnaker 20. 80 j hintikka 21. 79 p feyerabend 22. 79 n cartwright 23. 77 p suppes 24. 72 a ayer 25. 61 g vonwright 26. 58 m fitting 27. 56 s kleene 28. 50 a church 29. 47 p geach 30. 47 i levi Table 2: Citations for Toulmin and related authors If we rank each author by the total number of citations (1988-2004), for the most popular work of the author (counting only the most common citation forms seen in 2004), then Toulmin does just as well (Table 3).
I will argue that although Toulmin is correct in rejecting mathematical logic as a theory of argument and logical empiricism as the philosophy of science, there is a significant role for metamathematics in the normative foundation of argument. The core is a metamathematical account of truth and entailment based on physical science rather than arithmetic. KEYWORDS: Stephen E. Toulmin; metamathematics; truth; argument; epistemology; entailment; warrant; backing; philosophy of science; inquiry; formal logic 1.
Can we tell? We just have to wait for the outcome. 4. HUME’S KANTIANISM To move on one step, let me offer a re-interpretation of Hume and Kant. I read A Treatise of Human Nature as saying the following: “Oh, so all we have is sensory inputs and Euclidean deductions, is it? Well, let’s see where this gets us”. The answer, of course is: it gets us nowhere. The result is what misguided teachers of philosophy call “Humeanism”: namely, the conclusion that we don’t know anything, and can’t legitimately claim to know anything, and this makes the World unintelligible.