Environmental Economics

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By Robert U. Ayres

Business ecology is coming of age and this awesome booklet brings jointly prime students to give a state of the art review of the topic.

Each a part of the publication comprehensively covers the next concerns in a scientific variety:

• the pursuits and achievements of commercial ecology and the historical past of the sphere

• method, masking the most methods to research and overview

• economics and business ecology

• commercial ecology on the national/regional point

• commercial ecology on the sectoral/materials point

• purposes and coverage implications.

The authors are all specialists on the leading edge of the sector and the bibliography by myself will end up valuable as a accomplished consultant to the literature. This impressive instruction manual should be an imperative reference for college students and students operating in environmental administration, business ecology and environmental and ecological reviews.

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Extra info for A Handbook of Industrial Ecology

Example text

Ultimately, it will be the productivity of the various approaches in generating conceptual insights and practical knowledge that will determine their adoption3. CONCLUSION As a new field, industrial ecology is a cluster of concepts, tools, metaphors and exemplary applications and objectives. Some aspects of the field have well-defined relationships, whereas other elements are only loosely grouped together, connected as much by the enthusiasm of the proponents as by a well-articulated intellectual architecture.

3 Industrial ecology conceptualized in terms of its system-oriented and application-oriented elements Reducing Risk versus Optimizing Resource Use Industrial ecology emphasizes the optimization of resource flows where other approaches to environmental science, management and policy sometimes stress the role of risk. For example, pollution prevention (P2) (also known as cleaner production or CP) emphasizes the reduction of risks, primarily, but not exclusively, from toxic substances at the facility or firm level (Allen 1996).

Dematerialization is usually measured in terms of mass of materials per unit of economic activity or per capita and typically assessed at the level of industrial sectors, regional, national or global economies (Wernick, Herman, Govind and Ausubel 1997; Adriaanse et al. 1997). Decarbonization asks the analogous question about the carbon content of fuels (Nakicenovic 1997). Inquiry in this arena ranges from analysis of whether such reductions are occurring (Cleveland and Ruth 1998), whether dematerialization per se (that is, reduction in mass alone) is sufficient to achieve environmental goals (Reijnders 1997) and what strategies would be most effective in bringing about such outcomes (Weizsäcker et al.

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