By Claude Lemarechal, Adam Ouorou, Georgios Petrou
To optimize the standard of carrier via a telecommunication community, we advise an set of rules in accordance with Lagrangian leisure. The bundle-type twin set of rules is customized to the current state of affairs, the place the twin functionality is the sum of a polyhedral functionality (coming from shortest course difficulties) and of a soft functionality (coming from the congestion function).
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Extra resources for A bundle-type algorithm for routing in telecommunication data networks
DSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) and OFDM techniques are considered as candidates for future broadband PLC networks [Dost01, Zimm00, TachNa02, DelFa01]. The spread spectrum has the advantage of robustness to narrowband interferences, the possibility for the realization of CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access), and operation with a low power spectrum density reducing the EMC problems [Dost01, SchuSc00]. However, DSS has a low spectral efﬁciency and a low-pass characteristic, and it is sensitive to frequency-selective fading.
WLL (Sec. 2), application of satellite technology, and so on. • Application of PLC technology in the MV supply networks. Communications technology applied to the PLC distribution networks has to ensure transmission of all services that are offered in the PLC access networks. Also, PLC backbone networks must not be a bottleneck in the common communications structure between PLC subscribers and the backbone network. Therefore, an applied backbone technology has to provide enough transmission capacity (data rates) and realization of various Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees.
For this purpose, the utilities need a permanent communication between their system entities, which can be at least partly realized by PLC as well. The building automation is a typical indoor application of the narrowband PLC systems, whereas the energy-related services are mainly (not only) indoor applications. In [BumiPi03], we ﬁnd a very interesting example of an application of a PLC-based automation system in the outdoor area. 9 Energy management Power plants General structure of a PLC system used for energy-related services PLC in the Telecommunications Access Area 19 for individual switching and monitoring of airﬁeld lighting.