By Haohong Wang, Lisimachos Kondi, Ajay Luthra, Song Ci
A finished presentation of the video conversation innovations and platforms, this booklet examines 4G instant platforms that are set to revolutionise ubiquitous multimedia communication.4G instant Video Communications covers the basic concept and appears at structures descriptions with a spotlight on electronic video. It addresses the major subject matters linked to multimedia verbal exchange on 4G networks, together with complicated video coding criteria, errors resilience and blunder concealment strategies, in addition to complicated content-analysis and model ideas for video communications, cross-layer layout and optimization frameworks and strategies. It additionally offers a high-level assessment of the electronic video compression normal MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 that's anticipated to play a key function in 4G networks. fabric is gifted logically permitting readers to show on to particular sights. the 1st half the publication covers primary concept and platforms, whereas the second one part strikes onto complicated innovations and functions. This ebook is a well timed mirrored image of the most recent advances in video communications for 4G instant platforms.
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Additional info for 4G wireless video communications
12) where T (γ ) is the symbol period, M(γ ) is the corresponding signal set, r is the redundant information used for the channel coding and p(γ ) is the fading distribution of γ . All of these variables are functions of the channel SINR γ . There has been a lot of research done on AMC by using BER as the channel quality metric. In general, given a certain SINR, BER can be easily derived according to corresponding modulation schemes. 13) where Q(·) is the complementary Gaussian error function, Eb is the energy per bit and N0 is the one-side AWGN power spectral density.
2 shows a typical finite-Markov model characterizing the Rayleigh fading channel used in adaptive modulation and coding research . In this channel model, each state represents a stationary BSC channel with a constant bit error rate. The states are ordered according to the decreasing values of bit error rates. The switching process between states is described by the transition probability matrix. Slow variations of bit error rate which occur in real channels make it possible for each state to transmit only between its two neighboring states.
As introduced in , in a 3GPP multimedia service the compressed IP/UDP/RTP packet (with RoHC) is encapsulated into a single PDCP packet, and then segmented into smaller pieces of RLC-PDU units. The RLC layer can operate in both the unacknowledged mode and the acknowledged mode, in which the former does not guarantee the data delivery while the later uses ARQ for error correction. In the physical layer, the FEC is added to the RLC-PDU depending on the coding schemes in use. On the other hand, there are many other protocol stacks for video delivery, for example, the PSS (packet-switching streaming service) supports both the IP/UDP/RTP and IP/TCP stack, and the MBMS (multimedia broadband/multicast service) supports both the IP/UDP/RTP and IP/UDP/LCT/ALC/FLUTE stacks.